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Executive Summary TRAFFICKERS Those who recruit, transport, and exploit women and girls span the continuum from a single individual to organized networks (Bruckert & Parent, 2002; UN Office on Drugs and Crime [UNODC], 2010). The most effective recruiters are those who already have, or who can establish, a trusting relationship with the potential victim or Physical consequences can include neurological issues, gastrointestinal disturbances, respiratory distress, chronic pain, sexually transmitted diseases (including HIV), urogenital problems, dental problems, fractures, and traumatic brain injuries (Burnette et al., 2008; Farley et al., 2003; Farley, Mac Leod, et al., 2011). Globalization, poverty, social and political instability, and war and military presence magnify the risk of trafficking (APA Presidential Task Force on Immigration, 2012; Aronowitz, 2009; Danailova-Trainor & Belser, 2006; Farr, 2005; Nikoli -Ristanovi , 2002a; O’Neill Richard, 2000; Trujillo, 2004; Watts & Zimmerman, 2002). Blurring the boundaries: Women’s criminality in the context of abuse. Retrieved from stable/40004583 Molnar, B., Shade, S., Kral, A., Booth, R., & Watters, J. Suicidal behavior and sexual/physical abuse among street youth. Factors that undermine the ability to protect oneself or disrupt the connections to social and familial support also increase susceptibility to psychological coercion (Albanese, 2007; Lloyd, 2011; Norton-Hawk, 2002; Pierce, 2009; Raphael & Ashley, 2008; Reid, 2010). This material may not be reprinted, translated, or distributed electronically without prior permission in writing from the publisher. Oshiberu Members of the Board for the Advancement of Psychology in Gabriel H. Twose, Ph D the Public Interest (2011–2014) Kari Hill Toni C. Hsu, Psy D; Patti Johnson, Ph D; Linda Petroff, Ph D; Diana L. Trafficked women and girls are frequently victims of mul- this article; tiple crimes. For permission, contact APA, Rights and Permissions, 750 First Street, Washington, DC 20002-4242. Wisdom, Ph D Specifically, we wish to thank the following individuals: Women’s Programs Office Gwendolyn Puryear Keita, Ph D Executive Director, APA Public Interest Directorate Shari E. Antonucci, Ph D (2014 Chair); Asuncion Miteria Austria, Sonia Sherry Ph D; Meg Bond, Ph D; Y. Dolores Cimini, Meghan Albal Ph D; Priscilla Dass-Brailsford, Ed D; Linda M. A variety of clinical populations potentially include Force on Trafficking of Women and Girls Research related to human trafficking is challenging due to its (c) The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or (d) “Child” shall mean any person under eighteen years of age.

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Burke, Ph D Othayonih Research Carlow University Metropolitan State University Michelle Contreras, Psy D Massachusetts School of Professional Psychology Trauma Center at JRI—Project Reach APA STAFF: WOMEN’S PROGRAMS OFFICE Shari E. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Retrieved from © 2014 by the American Psychological Association. Allert; Claudette Altuna, MSW, LICSW, ACSW, BCD, MHSA; Noel B. Castro, Ph D, MSW; Stacey Cecchet, Ph D; Megan Cler, Psy D; Angel Colon-Rivera, Ph D; Karen Countryman-Roswurm, LMSW; Katherine C. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs; (b) The consent of a victim of trafficking in persons to the intended exploitation set forth in subparagraph (a) of this article shall be irrelevant where any of the means set forth in subparagraph (a) have been used; complexity.

This material may be reproduced in whole or in part without fees or permission provided acknowledgment is given to the American Psychological Association. Cunningham; Carolina de los Rios, Ph D; Smita Ekka Dewan; Carol A. Garrett-Akinsanya, Ph D; Rivka Greenberg, Ph D; Iva Grey Wolf, Ph D; Helen H. There is no typical case of human trafficking, which receipt of a child for the purpose of exploitation shall be often overlaps with other closely related crimes, such as human considered “trafficking in persons” even if this does not smuggling, prostitution, intimate partner violence, and child involve any of the means set forth in subparagraph (a) of abuse.

The extremely limited research addressing the consequences of labor trafficking reveals that trafficked women and girls in forced labor are at high risk for physical injury, exposure to work hazards, and generally deplorable working conditions (Free the Slaves & the Human Rights Center, 2004; Human Rights Center, 2005; Human Rights Watch, 2001, 2012). Community-based participatory research for health: From process to outcomes (2nd ed.).

with victims’ families (Human Rights Center, 2005).

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